Historically, the small numbers of children presenting with gender dysphoria were primarily prepubescent males. In recent years, there has been a sharp increase in referrals of adolescent females to gender clinics. Many do not have a significant history of childhood gender dysphoria and a number suffer from comorbid mental health issues and neurodevelopmental conditions such as autism (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The reasons for these changes are understudied and remain poorly understood.

Childhood-onset gender dysphoria has been shown to have a high rate of natural resolution, with 61-98% of children reidentifying with their biological sex during puberty. No studies to date have evaluated the natural course and rate of gender dysphoria resolution among the novel cohort presenting with adolescent-onset gender dysphoria.

Sharp Rise in Gender Dysphoria Referrals

de Graaf, Nastasja & Giovanardi, Guido & Zitz, Claudia & Carmichael, Polly. (2018). Sex Ratio in Children and Adolescents Referred to the Gender Identity Development Service in the UK (2009–2016). Archives of Sexual Behavior. 47. 10.1007/s10508-018-1204-9.

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